Fire smoke and effluent generation techniques
Assessment of toxic hazards is increasingly being recognised as an important factor in the assessment of fire hazards
Prediction of toxic fire hazards depends on two parameters.
- Time-concentration profiles for major products. These depend on the fire growth curve and the yields of toxic products.
- Toxic potency of the products, based on estimates of doses likely to impair escape efficiency, cause incapacitation, or death.
Both of these criteria require toxic product yields from bench-scale tests to be replicated in large scale fires. For a bench scale method to differentiate between the stages of a fire, it must allow the equivalence ratio and/or the combustion efficiency to be quantified so that the individual fire stages can be identified, and the product yields correlated to each stage.