When Law and Hate Collide: Perspectives on Hate Crime

Centre for Criminal Justice Research and Partnerships

With the financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union.

The Daphne III programme aims to contribute to the protection of children, young people and women against all forms of violence and attain a high level of health protection, well-being and social cohesion.

Its specific objective is to contribute to the prevention of, and the fight against all forms of violence occurring in the public or the private domain, including sexual exploitation and trafficking of human beings.

The project was a collaboration of:

  • Lancashire Law School at the University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom, led by the project’s Principal Investigator Professor Michael Salter with Dr. Kim McGuire
  • The Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, led by Prof Christian Munthe
  • The Institute of Special Needs Education within the Department of Education Sciences at the Goethe University Frankfurt, led by Prof Dr Michael Fingerle.

To achieve its ultimate aim, the project explored a number of key questions such as:

  • Does the concept of Hate Crime Really Exist?
  • What is Hate Crime?
  • How can it be defined?
  • How far removed (if at all) from an aggravated crime is a Hate Crime?
  • Do we need a Hate Crime Law?
  • What groups of people should it cover?
  • Would a law violate any Human Rights?
  • Do victims of Hate Crime Support a Hate Crime Law?
  • Why do offenders commit Hate Crimes?
  • Is Hate Crime already legislated against?


Caroline has a Masters degree in Education and works as a research assistant at the Institute of Special Education at the Goethe University in Frankfurt, Germany.

She specialises in the inclusion of people with learning disabilities and ADHD in higher education and working life. Her previous research focused on resilience and coping strategies and the support and inclusion of people with mental health disorders. Her special interest is on the psychological effects of hate crime.

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