School of Community Health and Midwifery
Brook Building, BB224
Carol is a Medical Sociologist. She worked in the NHS before joining the Research in Childbirth and Health Unit (ReaCH), University of Central Lancashire (UCLan). She holds honorary appointments at the University of Liverpool and Liverpool Women’s NHS Foundation Trust. There are two strands to Carol’s research programme. The first, is concerned with optimising caesarean section use and care. The second, with stillbirth prevention and optimal bereavement care. Both strands are underpinned by the concept of right care, for women. She is co-author of Social and Cultural Perspectives on Health, Technology and Medicine: Old Concepts, New Problems (Routledge, 2016) which positions her research within its sociological roots.
This research has also informed the new World Health Organisation Guideline WHO recommendations on non-clinical interventions to reduce unnecessary caesarean sections. Access the Guideline here
Carol has also contributed to a new review of women’s, families and health professionals preferences for caesarean section in China. Read the article
Cochrane (Pregnancy and Childbirth Group)
British Sociology Association (BSA)
BSA Medical Sociology Group
BSA Human Reproduction Group
Ph.D. Sociology, Lancaster University, 2007
M.A. (Distinction) Sociological Research in Healthcare, University of Warwick, 1996
B.A. (Hons.) Sociology, Staffordshire University, 1995
Betrán AP, Temmerman M, Kingdon C, Mohiddin A, Opiyo N, Torloni MR et al. (2018) Interventions to reduce unnecessary caesarean sections in healthy women and babies. The Lancet. ISSN 0140-6736
Long Q, Kingdon C, Yang F, Renecle MD, Jahanfar S, Bohren MA, et al. (2018) Prevalence of and reasons for women’s, family members’, and health professionals’ preferences for cesarean section in China: A mixed-methods systematic review. PLoS Med 15(10): e1002672.
Kingdon C, Downe S, Betran AP (2018) Non-clinical interventions to reduce unnecessary caesarean section targeted at organisations, facilities and systems: Systematic review of qualitative studies. PLoS ONE 13(9): e0203274.
Houghton, Gillian, Kingdon, Carol , Dower, Michelle, Shakur, Haleema and Alfirevic, Zarko (2018) What women think about consent to research at the time of an obstetric emergency: A qualitative study of the views of a cohort of World Maternal Antifibrinolytic (WOMAN) Trial participants. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology . ISSN 1470-0328
2018-2020 –Better Births: Service Evaluation at South Warwickshire NHS Foundation Trust
2018- 19 – TRANSFORM(ation): Outline submission for EU HORIZON 2020 Call
2017-18 - £23,436 SANDS – Inequalities in stillbirth: a meta-narrative review (Lead applicant)
2017-18 – Consultancy – World Health Organisation (WHO) Caesarean Section Guideline
2016-2018 - £349,156 - NIHR Research for Patient Benefit (RfPB) - Preventing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: the Stress and Wellbeing after Childbirth Study. (Collaborator) Lead applicant Professor Pauline Slade, University of Liverpool
2015-16 – Deciding About Research when heavy bleeding occurs during Childbirth (DARCi): A Study of Women’s Experiences
2014 - £9,396 ESRC Institutional Award to University of Liverpool - Technological Affordances: Transformations in Society and Science (Co-applicant) (Lead Applicant Dr Ciara Kierans)
2013-14 - £49,851 Liverpool Health Inequalities Research Institute (LivHIR) - Maternity Assist: Can an innovative midwifery led digital information and communication technology enhance maternity care and promote health? (Lead applicant)
2013-14 - £39,852 Liverpool Health Inequalities Research Institute (LivHIR) - Developing a package of care to identify and intervene with women at risk from post -traumatic stress symptoms related to childbirth (Co-applicant) Lead applicant Professor Pauline Slade, University of Liverpool
2009-10 - £15,000 SANDS - Parents experiences of communication with health professionals after a stillbirth (Co-applicant) Lead applicant Dr Alexander Heazell, University of Manchester
PhD Supervision (completions)
MA/MSc/MRes Supervision (completions)
African Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
British Journal of Midwifery
Communication & Medicine
Journal of Health Psychology
Maternal & Child Nutrition
Other Peer Review Work
Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group
Department of Health Scottish Office
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Research for Patient Benefit
International Normal Birth Conference
Wellbeing: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Grant Scheme
Media coverage following publication of “Kingdon C, Neilson J, Singleton V, Gyte G, Hart A, Gabbay M, Lavender, T. (2009) Choice and birth method: Mixed-method study of caesarean delivery for maternal request. BJOG International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: 116:886” included articles in print copies of two national newspapers, published statements from the Department of Health, General Secretary of the Royal College of Midwives and the Editor-in-Chief of BJOG.
This book takes up classic anthropological and sociological concepts (‘culture, ‘society’, ‘magic’, ‘production’, ‘kinship’, ‘exchange’, ‘the body’) and explores their ongoing relevance to contemporary developments in health, technology and medicine. It includes a number of topical case studies including caesarean section, stillbirth, organ transplantation and tissue exchange, genetic counselling, and neuroscientific approaches to addiction. It draws on a range of foundational thinkers who have been taken up across anthropology and sociology and beyond these fields (e.g. Pierre Bourdieu, Mary Douglas, Émile Durkheim, E.E. Evans-Pritchard, Michel Foucault, Donna Haraway, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Bronislaw Malinowki, Karl Marx, Marcel Mauss) to demonstrate the contributions anthropology and sociology make to fields of growing interdisciplinary interests. The foreword is written by Deborah Lupton.
Invited Speaker (International)
Keynote – Caesarean birth should be available on request - Debate (AGAINST), Safely preventing the first caesarean section, Royal Society of Medicine, London, 27th November 2015.
Keynote – The Caesarean Epidemic: Necessary and Unnecessary Caesarean Sections? 2nd Abu Dhabi Obstetrics, Gynaecology & Midwifery Congress 2014, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 25-26th September 2014..
Keynote – (Un)Making Childbirth: Society, Choice and Care. 8th International Normal Birth Conference, Grange-Over-Sands, Cumbria, 5-7th June 2013.
An Introduction to Feminist Technoscience Studies of Reproduction : Caesarean Delivery for Maternal Request as a case-study. Cross-disciplinary workshop led by ReaCH Midwifery Research Cluster, UCLan, Preston, 17th April 2013.
“What is Childbirth?” for Reproduction: Continuities and Transformations, Feminist Technoscience Studies Summer School, Centre for Gender and Women’s Studies, Lancaster University, 22-25th May 2012.
'Caesarean delivery for maternal request: The evidence', Part Libre: Birth Humanization Conference on Caesarean Section. Mexico City, 4-5th May 2009 .
Feminist Science Studies: Understanding Women's Views of Caesarean Birth. 1st International Science and Technology Studies Spring School, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Villa Lanna, Prague, Czech Republic, March 2005.
Planned Caesarean Section as a Delivery Option for Primigravid Women. Term Breech Trial: Two-Year Follow up Meeting, University of Toronto, Canada, 2003.
Invited Speaker (National)
Keynote – Transdisciplinary evidence around inequalities and stillbirth: What’s to be done?, Transforming loss: Meeting the needs of parents, Joint conference of BLISS, RCM, and SANDS, 25th September 2018.
Keynote - Normalising birth across the risk spectrum. Royal Society of Medicine 16th May 2017.
Ever decreasing circle? Consumer perspective of maternity services. RCM 17th Annual Conference for Student Midwives Imperial College, London, 19 December 2007
An exploration of what British teenagers want from sex education lessons. 3rd Annual Research in Child Health Conference, Royal Liverpool Children’s Hospital, 13th No 2007
‘Women’s views of planned vaginal and planned caesarean birth during pregnancy and after their first experience of childbirth, National Childbirth Trust Annual Conference & Exhibition, The Quality Hotel, Glasgow, 9-10 June 2007
Changing childbirth? Women’s accounts of vaginal and planned caesarean birth. Birth: The cultural politics of reproduction an interdisciplinary conference. Lancaster University, 6th and 7th March 2007
An exploration of the views of teenagers towards sexual health education. Midwifery & Women’s Health Matter: Putting Research into Practice. 10th Annual Midwifery Research Conference, Liverpool Women’s Hospital October 2007
Women’s views of vaginal and caesarean birth during pregnancy. Putting Research into Practice. 9th Annual Midwifery Research Conference, Liverpool Women’s Hospital October 2006.
Women’s Views of Different Ways of Giving Birth Putting Research into Practice. 8th Annual Midwifery Research Conference, Liverpool Women’s Hospital October 2005.
Midwifery through a Sociology Lens. British Journal of Midwifery 2nd National Conference on Current Issues in Midwifery. Regents College, London, September 2004
Peer Reviewed Conference Papers (International)
Pascall A, Kingdon C, Cheyne H. Obesity and Intrapartum Care: Women’s and Professionals perspectives. International Confederation of Midwives Prague, June 2014
Pascall A, Kingdon C, Cheyne H. Obesity and Intrapartum Care: Women’s and Professionals perspectives. 8th International Normal Birth Conference, Grange-Over-Sands, Cumbria, 5-7th June 2013
Holleran J, Downe S, Thomson G, Kingdon C. Ethnographic study to explore the use and impact of computerised systems within the birth suite at East Lancashire Hospitals Trust. 8th International Normal Birth Conference, Grange-Over-Sands, Cumbria, 5-7th June 2013
Ettorree,E., Kingdon C. Bodies, drugs and reproductive regimes. 104th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, in San Francisco, August 8-11, 2009
Kingdon,C, Finlayson,K, Thomson,G, Downe,S. Non-access to antenatal care in the UK: Women’s prerogative or social problem? The Society for the Study of Social Problems, 59th Annual Meeting. San Francisco, August 2009
Kingdon C. Constructions of healthy childbirth: Challenging the borders between vaginal delivery and caesarean section. The Society for the Study of Social Problems, 58th Annual Meeting. Park Plaza Hotel and Towers, Boston, August 2008
Baker L, Kingdon C, Lavender T. ‘An exploration of the views of teenagers towards sexual health education.’ International Confederation of Midwives, SECC, Glasgow, Scotland, June 2008
Kerrigan A, Kingdon C. Obesity and maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancy: A retrospective survey. International Confederation of Midwives, SECC, Glasgow, Scotland, June 2008
Longworth H, Kingdon C. Expectations and experiences of birth: An exploration of the views of first time fathers’ who attended parentcraft classes. International Confederation of Midwives, SECC, Glasgow, Scotland, June 2008
Steen M, Kingdon C. ‘Vaginal breech birth or Caesarean? 6th African Midwives Research Network Biennial Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, November 2007
Kingdon C. Representing birth: content analysis of UK newspaper portrayals of vaginal and caesarean birth. Normal Labour and Birth 3rd Research Conference, Grange-Over-Sands, Lake District, June 2006
Longworth H, Kingdon C. Expectations and experience of birth: an exploration of the views of first time fathers’ who attended parentcraft classes. Normal Labour and Birth 3rd Research Conference, Grange-Over-Sands, Lake District, June 2006
Kingdon C, Lavender T. Choosing Caesarean Section? Primigravid women's views of different ways of giving birth in the antenatal period. 27th Triennial Congress of the International Confederation of Midwives Congress. Brisbane, Australia, July 2005
Kingdon C, Lavender T. Choosing caesarean section? Primigravid women’s views of different ways of giving birth in the antenatal period. Normal Labour and Birth – 2nd Research Conference. Grange-Over-Sands, Lake District, June 2004
Kingdon C, Lavender T. Choosing caesarean section? Primigravid women’s views of different ways of giving birth in the antenatal period. The 10th International Conference of Maternity Care Researchers, Lund University, Sweden, June 2004
Lavender T, Kingdon C, Gyte G, Gaby M, Neilson J. Planned Caesarean section as a delivery option for primigravidae women. Obstetric and Gynaecology Congress, Glasgow 7-9 July 2004.
Kingdon C, Lavender T. Evidence in action: the practice of elective caesarean section. 4th Annual Conference of the European Association for the Study of Science and Technology, Ecole des Mines de Paris, Paris, August 2004
Kingdon C, Lavender T. Maternal views of caesarean section: Cross-cultural perspectives and evidence-based healthcare. 4th Biennial Conference of the African Research Midwives Network (AMRN), Maputo, Mozambique, November 2003
Kingdon C, Cattrell R, Lavender T, Singleton DV, Neilson JP. Planned Caesarean Section as a Delivery Option for Primigravid Women in the NHS. Ninth International Conference of Maternity Care Researchers, University of North Carolina, Wilmington, April 2002
Harvey J, Kingdon C, Mallinson H, Tyrer A, Webb A. Chlamydia Trachomatis: Prevalence and Sexual Behaviour in Young People in Liverpool. 5th Congress of the European Society of Contraception, Prague, March 1998.
Peer Reviewed Conference Papers (National)
Kingdon C, Singleton DV "(Un)Making Childbirths: A feminist technoscience studies analysis of the current reproductive controversy surrounding caesarean delivery for maternal request", BSA Human Reproduction Study Group 11th Annual Conference, 21st June 2012
Kingdon C. ‘There is no choice:’ Women’s accounts of vaginal and caesarean birth during pregnancy and after their first experience of childbirth. BSA Medical Sociology Group 39th Annual Conference, Britannia Adelphi Hotel, Liverpool, September 2007
Kingdon C, Lavender T. Choosing caesarean section? Evidence on trial. BSA Medical Sociology Group 36th Annual Conference, University of York, September 2004
Kingdon C. Evidence for Caesarean Section on Trial. Moving Midwifery Forward: Implementing the Evidence, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, March 2003
Kingdon C, Cattrell R, Lavender T, Singleton DV, Neilson JP. Planned Caesarean Section as a Delivery Option for Primigravid Women in the NHS. 1st Normal Labour and Birth Conference, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, June 2002
Kingdon C, Cattrell R, Lavender T, Singleton DV, Neilson JP. Planned Caesarean Section as a Delivery Option for Primigravid Women in the NHS. Liverpool & Aintree Midwives Research Interest Group 5th Annual Conference, Liverpool (winner of best poster prize), October 2002
Forward L, Kingdon C, Hiscock J. Caught in the Crossfire of the Changing NHS. British Sociological Association Medical Sociology Group Annual Conference, University of York, York, September 1998