Dr. Linghai Lu

Lecturer for Aerospace Engineering

School of Engineering

Computing and Technology Building, CM132

+44 (0) 1772 89 3223

Linghai is dedicated professional with 10+ years’ experience in the aerospace field. Specializes in maximizing aircraft performance and safety through developing innovative methodologies. Now seeking to contribute his experience, skills, and expertise to the students at the UCLan.

Full Profile

Linghai Lu received a B.A.Sc. degree in Automation from China in 2001 and a M.S. degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from University of Glasgow, United Kingdom, in 2003. He then worked for Intel A5T5 in the field of Electrical Systems. In 2004, he was awarded a Glasgow University Scholarship and an Overseas Research Studentship from the British Government. He got his PhD degree at the Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department of University of Glasgow in 2007. Since then, he was a Research Associate at the Engineering Faculty of University of Liverpool. He also worked for the Virtual Engineering Centre before joining the UCLAN. His interests include Aircraft Modeling and Real-time Simulation, Pilot Modelling and Aircraft-Pilot Coupling, Flying Cars, Flight Control System and Flight Handling Qualities, Aircraft System Identification and Full-Motion Simulator Fidelity.

Working Experiences

  • 2015.01 -- 2015.08 Researcher at Virtual Engineering Centre (VEC) at STFC Daresbury Laboratory
  • 2007.10 -- 2014.12 Research Associate at Centre for Dynamics (Aerospace) at University of Liverpool
  • 2004.03 -- 2004.10 Electrical Engineer at Intel Inc.


  • Ph.D. Electronic & Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, 2007
  • M.Sc. Electronic & Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, 2003 
  • B.Sc. Electrical Engineering and Automation Control, Yanshan University, 2001


  • 2013.09 Best Paper awarded from 39th European Rotorcraft Forum, Moscow, Russia
  • 2010 -- 2011 The GARTEUR Award of Excellence awarded from European Commission
  • 2004.10 -- 2007.09 Full Overseas Research Scholarship (ORS) and University Scholarship awarded from British Government and University of Glasgow

Research Background

Project 1: Development of UAV Simulation models with FLIGHTLAB

  •  Under GAMMA project, responsible for developing three scales of UAV simulation models: RTF AERO (2 kg fixed wing UAV), GAMMA Frontier UAV (>150kg fixed wing UAV), and Diamond DA42 Twin Star (2,500kg fixed wing) for the VEC virtual test laboratory and the University of Manchester flying test-bed to provide the facilities required to evaluate a product, de-risk and perform a flight.
  • Built the generic primary display panel for UAV simulation using Presagis’s VAPS XT; created the communication link between the distribution simulation software PITCH and VAPs XT using Visual C++ , allowing to control the UAV from the touch screen .

Project 2: myCopter: Enabling Technologies for Personal Aerial Transportation Systems

  •  2010.10 – 2015.12; funded by European Commission (FP7/2007-2014) N°266470 (involving 5 European partners)
    •  Involved in developing a highly reconfigurable generic flight dynamics simulation model in the MATLAB Simulink for Vertical Take-Off and Landing-capable Personal Aerial Vehicles (PAVs). The other 5 European partners used the models and methodologies developed at UoL in their elements of the research
    • Involved in developing handling qualities and training guidelines and criteria for the potential “flight-naïve” pilot of a PAV.
    • Developed new landing profiles preferred by “flight-naïve” pilots of a PAV. This is motivated from the point of view that ‘natural-feeling’ cues are related to the physiological cues presented during a visual landing.

Project 3: ARISTOTEL: Aircraft and Rotorcraft Pilot Coupling (A/PRC) - Tools and Techniques for Alleviation and Detection

  • 2010.10 -- 2013.10; funded by European Commission (FP7/2007-2013) N°266073 (involving 12 European partners)
    • Successfully developed advanced vehicle-pilot-FCS simulation models (PUMA and BO105) for “rigid body” and aero-servo-elastic A/RPC analysis using MATLAB and FLIGHTLAB. These models also have been successfully implemented in flight simulators and used for experiments. 
    • Proposed new A/RPC design guidelines and criteria to reduce the aircraft and rotorcraft accidents 
    • Developed new advanced pilot models for predicting A/RPCs. 
    • Developed new protocols and guidelines for A/RPC flight simulator training

Project 4: Design of Pilot Visual Aids

  • 2010.01 -- 2010.09; funded by European Regional Development Fund/UK Virtual Engineering Lab
    • A new method is proposed for modelling boundary-avoidance tracking (BAT) PIO phenomenon that was discovered in the America Air force Test Pilot School, and also for determining the critical incipience for this class of APC.
    • Successfully brought together optical tau theory and boundary-avoidance tracking developments in flight control. The new approach has been applied to predict the conditions under which APCs may occur. In addition, a strong correlation between motion and control activity, and the derivatives of tau, adds substance to the hypothesis that the pilot’s perceptual system works directly with invariants in the optical flow during visual guidance.

Results from flight simulation tests conducted at the UoL, and complementary flight tests carried out with the National Research Council (NRC, Canada) ASRA in-flight simulator, support the tau control hypothesis. The theory suggests ways that pilots could be alerted to the impending threat of such adverse APCs.

Project 5: Lifting Standards Project - Bell412 Fidelity Improvement (NRC supported with flight test)

  • 2009.03 -- 2009.12; funded by UK EPSRC Grant EP/G002932/1 and the US Army International Technology Centre (W911NF-11-1-0002)
    • Developed a new frequency domain system identification approach for model renovation and fidelity improvement of a baseline FLIGHTLAB Bell 412 helicopter model. Predictability tests are based on responses to multi-step control inputs. The new renovation process involves augmenting the simulation model based on the identified parameters.
    • The new approach has been validated with flight test data over a range of forward speeds, particularly the primary, on-axis, responses, based on frequency domain matching and verification using multi-step responses

Project 6: Prediction and Assessment of A/RPCs Phenomena

  • 2007.10 -- 2009.02; funded by UK EPSRC Grant EP/D003512/1
    • Developed the new methodology to explain helicopter stability under flight-path constraint below the minimum-drag speed in descending flight. The work can serve as a good theoretical explanation for the revised criterion in ADS-33E for flight-path control on the backside of the power-required curve.
    • The new approach was validated with the results from the piloted simulation trials and flight test in level flight, in powered descent, and in autorotation, to varying degrees,

The study was also part of Liverpool’s contribution to GARTEUR HC-AG16, Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings. The FLIGHTLAB Bell 412 simulation model was created and validated from data provided by the NRC, Ottawa.

Research Software: FLIGHTLAB, MATLAB, C/Linux (Fodera), CIFER (Comprehensive Identification from Frequency Responses)

Research Facility (Simulators): HELIFLIGHT-R and HELIFLIGHT-I Simulators in the University of Liverpool, and SIMONA Research Simulator in TU Delft; (Real Helicopter): Bell 412 ASRA Research helicopter in Flight Research Laboratory (NRC, Ottawa)

Helicopter Models: Bo105, Bell412, Puma, GROB, UH-60 Black Hawk, Lynx

Membership of professional and learned bodies

  • Member of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE, No: 90702909);
  • Member of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA, No: 413199)
  • Member of American Helicopter Society
  • Member of Royal Aeronautical Society

Research Activities

Aircraft Modelling; Aircraft Control Design; System Identification (both time and frequency domains); Aircraft Real-Time Simulation (Rigid-Body and Aeroelastic); Inverse Simulation; Model Inversion Aircraft Handling Qualities; Human Factors; Pilot Modelling; Pilot Perception; Aircraft/Rotorcraft Pilot Active and Passive Coupling; Simulator Fidelity and Simulation Software Development Personal Aerial Vehicle (PAV)


1 MyCopter 2010/10-2014 European Commission (FP7/2007-2014) N°266470

2 ARISTOTEL 2010/10-2013 European Commission (FP7/2007-2013) N°266073

3 Design of Pilot Visual Aids 2010/01-2010/09 European Regional Development Fund/UK Virtual Engineering Lab

4 Lifting Standards Project-Bell412 Fidelity Improvement 2009/03-2009/12 UK EPSRC Grant EP/G002932/1 and the US Army International Technology Centre (W911NF-11-1-0002)

5 Prediction and Assessment of A/RPCs Phenomena, as part of GARTEUR H-AG16 2007/10-2009/02 UK EPSRC Grant EP/D003512/1

Teaching activities and responsibilities

the module of Introduction to Aerospace Vehicle

External Affiliations and Roles

Honorary Fellow in the University of Liverpool


1. Pavel, M. (TUD, Netherland), Masaratib, P. (POLIMI, Italy), Gennarettic, M. (Università Roma Tre, Italy), Jump, M. (UOL, UK), Zaichike, L (Zhukovsky, Russian), Dang-Vu, B. (ONERA, France), Lu, L (UK), Yilmaza, D. (TUD, Netherland), Quarantab, G. (TUD, Netherland), Ionitag, A. (STRAERO, Romania), Serafinic, J (Università Roma Tre, Italy), “Practices to Identify and Preclude Adverse Aircraft-and-Rotorcraft-Pilot Couplings – A Design Perspective,” Progress in Aerospace Sciences, accepted for publishing, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.paerosci.2015.05.002

2. Muscarello, V. (Milano POLIMI), Quaranta, G. (Milano POLIMI), Masarati, P. (Milano POLIMI), Lu, L. , and Jump, M. (UoL) “Flight Simulator Investigations of Adverse Aeroservoelastic Roll Rotorcraft–Pilot Coupling,” Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, accepted for publishing, 2015; DOI:10.2514/1.G001121

3. Masarati, P. (Milano POLIMI), Quaranta, G.(Milano POLIMI), Lu, L., and Jump, M. (UoL) “A Closed Loop Experiment of Collective Bounce Aeroelastic Rotorcraft-Pilot Coupling,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, published online, Jan. 2014, Vol. 333, No. 1, pp. 307-325. DOI: /10.1016/j.jsv.2013.09.020.

4. Lu, L., and Jump, M. “A Multi-Loop Pilot Model for Boundary-Avoidance-Tracking PIO Investigation,” Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, published online, 2014, Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 1863-1879. DOI:10.2514/1.G000079