Explore our research

  • Institute for Innovation, Enterprise and Entrepreneurship (i2e2)

    Business Entrepreneurship

Formed in 2007 under the leadership of Professor Bob Ritchie, the Institute for Innovation, Enterprise and Entrepreneurship (i² e²) seeks to make an impact on the practice of entrepreneurship and small business management through high quality projects and research linked to teaching and dissemination of best practice.

It aims to develop advanced knowledge, leading to effective knowledge transfer and application within the research, practitioner and policy making communities.

The Institute, although UK-based, recognises the important contribution to the achievement of its research objectives that can be made through national and international collaboration. i² e² already engages with researchers in many universities and institutions both within the UK and also in the US, Germany, China, Cyprus, Poland and New Zealand.

The Institute seeks to focus its resources on specialist areas of projects and research within the broader fields of innovation, enterprise and entrepreneurship, seeking to achieve excellence and a reputation for leading-edge contributions.

Expertise and Subject Areas

Current specialisms incorporate:

  • Entrepreneurship
  • Creativity – fostering and sustaining a culture in the organisation
  • Innovation and enterprise culture in small and medium sized businesses


  • Entrepreneurial Learning
  • Supply Chain Risk Management
  • Entrepreneurial Finance including specialist financing of high growth businesses
  • Social Enterprise


Impact from different perspectives:

  • Diversity in approach given diversity in nature and behaviour of small enterprises

  • Overcome the SME reluctance to engage with external agencies such as universities

  • International recognition through analysis of funding sources and requirements and the variation between countries reflecting cultural differences

  • Highlighting the specialist enterprises which have distinctive market and business challenges

  • Fostering and sustaining creativity, invention and innovation in all organisations


Joint Publications

A feature of the ISCRiM network has been the publication of two research handbooks designed to capture and disseminate more widely contemporary information, evidence, developments and practices associated with the effective and efficient management of risk in the supply chain.

The initial publication ‘Supply Chain Risk’, edited by Professor Clare Brindley and published by Ashgate in 2004 was much acclaimed as the first in the field and innovative in the thinking it brought to the research and practice of Supply Chain Risk Management. The rapid developments in the field since the generation and publication of this first book led to the commissioning of a second text -SUPPLY CHAIN RISK: A Handbook of Assessment, Management and Performance in Supply Chain Risk Management, edited by Associate Professor George Zsidisin and Professor Bob Ritchie and published by Springer in 2009.

This latter text builds on the first text seeking to explore new dimensions to the field (e.g. development of metrics); generating links with other fields (e.g. relationship marketing; financial portfolio management) and to extend the range of applications (e.g. food supply chains, international construction, global IT supply chains, sea container transportation). This truly international collaborative venture involved contributions from 32 researchers and practitioners in 20 different countries. The outstanding success of the latest text has led to the request by the publisher for the team to produce a second edition for publication later in 2013.

Articles, papers and literature

Articles printed:

  • Ritchie, Bob; Brindley, Clare S.; Armstrong, Nick (2008): "Risk assessment and relationship management: practical approach to supply chain risk management". International Journal of Agile Systems and Management. Vol 3 No 3/4, pp 228-247

Books and book chapters:

  • Simon A. Burtonshaw-Gunn (Feb 2009): Risk and Financial Management in Construction. 200 pages Hardback. ISBN 978-0-566-08897-1. Publisher Gower, UK. Book.
  • Zsidisin, George & Ritchie, Bob (eds) (2008) SUPPLY CHAIN RISK: A handbook of assessment, management, and performance. Springer International. 360 pages. Book.
  • Burtonshaw-Gunn, S. & Ritchie, B. (2007) “Developments in Construction
  • Supply Chain Management and the Impact on People and Cultural Change”. A book chapter published in 'People and Culture in Construction' edited by Professor Andy Dainty of Loughborough University. Taylor and Francis. ISBN-13: 978-0415348706.

Courses and Postgraduate Study

Members of the Institute for Innovation, Enterprise and Entrepreneurship (i² e²) have considerable experience, knowledge and skills in the creation of new ventures, supporting the business through its start-up stages and ensuring the effective management of the small business through the various stages of its life-cycle, including high growth.

These assets and skills have been translated into a highly successful, dynamic and practice-oriented programme of teaching and learning opportunities from undergraduate to postgraduate awards and ultimately Ph.D research projects.


Entrepreneurship modules

Undergraduate level

  • New Venture Creation
  • Enterprise Skills
  • Entrepreneurship & the Small Business
  • Planning & Implementing Business Start-up
  • Managing Your Business
  • Business Venture Development
  • Business Enterprise Project

Postgraduate level

  • New Business Venture Development


Institute for Innovation, Enterprise and Entrepreneurship team:

  • Director of the Institute and Associate Director (Research) - Professor Bob Ritchie
  • Associate Director (Learning and Curriculum) - Sally Bate
  • Associate Director (Knowledge Exchange) - Sally Bate 
  • Enterprise Fellow (Knowledge Exchange) - Peter Brown
  • Enterprise Fellow (Knowledge Exchange) - Peter Ashfield
  • Enterprise Fellow - Dr Clare Worthington
  • Enterprise Fellow - Giles McClelland
  • Enterprise Fellow- Adrian Wright
  • Enterprise Fellow – Karl Lester
  • Enterprise Fellow – Dr Rachel Dyer – Research & Innovation Office
  • Enterprise Fellow – John Lonsdale – Research & Innovation Office
  • Enterprise Fellow – Peter Rawling – Business Incubation Manager Northern Lights
  • Enterprise Fellow – Lateef Badat - Business Mentor/Coach Northern Lights
  • Enterprise Fellow – John Duckworth - Business Advisor/Mentor Northern Lights
  • Enterprise Fellow – Neil Simpson - Business Development Officer Northern Lights
  • Enterprise Fellow – Max Rowbotham - Business Development Officer Northern Lights
  • Enterprise Fellow –Steve Simm - Business Development Officer Northern Lights
  • Enterprise Fellow –Julia Stickley- Business Support Co-Ordinator/Mentor Northern Lights
  • Enterprise Fellow – Anne Newman – Enterprise Development Manager

Additional Information

Knowledge Transfer

Knowledge Transfer services provided through the Institute for Innovation, Enterprise and Entrepreneurship (i² e²), work primarily within the regional community, helping to develop, support and sustain the growth of new businesses in the region.

Working in collaboration with external partners, i² e² provides an invaluable service, helping to support targeted individuals, micro-businesses and early stage high growth businesses with their future business plans. Funded primarily through grant funding, the centre aims to be seen as a recognised centre of excellence within its field across the North West region.

The services provided can be extended to engage with the learning and research dimensions to develop suitable training and educational programmes, which are accredited towards University awards.

A range of flexible and accessible courses including short courses, accreditation of in-company training courses, degree programmes, tailored accredited programmes at undergraduate and masters degree levels are also available.

Northern Lights

The Northern Lights business support programme and incubation unit provides support to students, graduates and eligible businesses throughout the North West that are thinking about, or in the early stages of starting a business.

The Northern Lights team works with Lancashire Business School (LBS) to provide links between established knowledge and know-how, in-depth research, and leading edge thinking on developing, sustaining and growing businesses.

Collaboration have included looking at the function of the business incubator itself and the journey clients take, to understanding the barriers to growth in business which is very much aligned to two business support programmes being run by Northern Lights and funded by the European Regional Development Programme (ERDF) to impact small growing businesses.

More information about the Northern Lights support programme can be found here, and more information on the LBS research impacts can be found here.


This international network was founded in 2001 by a small group of active researchers, led by Professor Bob Ritchie, from the UK, US and Sweden. Its aim is to facilitate rapid advancement of knowledge and understanding through a pro-active engagement and collaboration amongst key researchers and practitioners in this evolving field. The members regularly exchange and share findings and developments with others in the network. Much of the work is practice-oriented and links well with the expertise in innovation and enterprise.

The network also exists to provide a core of expertise, information and knowledge which can be accessed by other interested researchers, practitioners and policy makers engaged in supply chain management and the risks associated with increasingly complex and global supply chain configurations and the greater risk exposure.

The team has grown and developed in the period since its inception and represents a large core of experienced international researchers, writers and publishers within this and related disciplines. The 35 members are drawn from 20 different countries with representation from leading world-class institutions such as Cranfield, The University of Central Lancashire (UCLan) in the UK; Michigan State and Western Carolina universities.

Related Projects


LEAD was a 10 month practical leadership development programme for business leaders of established businesses with 5-50 employees. The programme was supported by The Northwest Development Agency.

We have reached the end of our LEAD programme at UCLan and are no longer accepting applications. However if you are interested in management/leadership development please contact us.

In LEAD we focused on enabling business owners/managers to grow their business by building and developing their leadership talent. In LEAD we supported business owners, in their world, to work on their issue/opportunities to create the space they needed to shape their future. It’s about working on the business not just in the business!

Running LEAD gave us the opportunity to work with a range of business owner/managers. We have seen businesses grow and thrive and shared in their successes. We are pleased to have had the opportunity to contribute to shaping and stimulating the economic growth of our delegates and the region. LEAD has been a fantastic experience for everyone involved and we hope that our team, delegates and their businesses will continue to reap the benefits of the programme for many years.

The best way to measure the success of a programme is through the feedback form the delegates. Here’s what the UCLan LEAD delegates said about their experience:

  • LEAD was a new type of learning for me and very effective – really made me focus.
  • LEAD was a really positive catalyst for moving my business forward. I work differently and the business runs differently. 
  • LEAD was probably one of the most powerful things I have done. I thought at the beginning ‘this will not work for me’ – how wrong can you be. It's transformational.
  • LEAD gives you the tools that you can apply to your business and supports you in so many ways to change and develop you and the business.
  • LEAD has already increased the productivity and sales of my business. Just one lesson from a master class can change the business!
  • LEAD far exceeded my expectations. Its life changing, business enhancing & inspiring.


The Burnley Enterprise Development Programme (bedp), was an innovative programme of peer support for local SME businesses based within the borough of Burnley. The idea for the programme was initially promoted by Allan Leighton in his role as Prince’s Ambassador for Burnley.

His idea was to assist a small number of high growth/high growth potential businesses in Burnley by setting up a series of master classes designed to share the knowledge and expertise of leading business leaders. It was also hoped that the programme would raise opportunities and aspirations for participating companies whilst building a peer support network.

This was a high profile programme targeted at a small number of Burnley companies that were selected on the basis of their contribution (or potential future contribution) to Burnley’s economy.

I2e2 staff worked with Business in the Community and Burnley Council to bring his vision to reality. In order to add strength of depth to this we engaged with other local agencies to develop a partnership that could engage with deliver to and support local businesses.

The programme was developed and delivered through the partnership working together bringing their knowledge, skills and contacts together. The master class sessions were designed to be the focal point of the programme and the forum at which the selected companies can meet and share ideas as a group. The master classes are intended to be inspirational and challenging delivered by high profile business leaders.

Other master classes included:

  • Sinclair Beecham MBE, co-founder of Pret-a-Manger the international sandwich chain and Hoxton Hotel
  • Edwin Booth, Chairman of Booths Supermarkets who presented on business growth and
  • Jonathan Warburton, chairman of Warburtons Ltd presented on branding/marketing.

Sally Bate from i2e2 at UCLan hosted each session and helped the businesses reflect and review what they have learnt from the sessions and how they would use the learning to impact on their management/leadership practice and their business.

In 2010 HRH Prince Charles visited Burnley and the bedp project was to be featured during the visit. Sally Bate from i2e2 and Allan Leighton then facilitated a very lively session looking at current marketing and branding activities and focusing especially on the key issues facing the business at this time. HRH then joined the session and chatted to the businesses about the issues raised and shared with them his issues with his businesses such as Duchy Originals. He also thanked the businesses for all that they do to keep going and keep employing and supporting the local economy and communities. Not surprisingly the businesses gave excellent feedback on this session and the only negative comments were that the session was not long enough!

More practical workshops were added to the programme with sessions tailored to the businesses needs such as a practical and engaging look at accessing finance which was uniquely delivered directly by bank underwriters and an interactive session focusing on the economy facilitated by Prof Phil Whyman from UCLan.

Two papers were delivered to isbe conferences to share the learning from the programme with the business support community. Bedp was also used as the basis for the successful ERSC KE project KN4B.

Social Enterprise

I2e2 has developed and delivered a range of support programmes for those starting and running social enterprises.

SE Support

LBS were commissioned by Central Lancashire PCT to develop and deliver a programme to support potential providers to the PCT (particularly community and third sector organisations) in developing business plans, infrastructure and systems in order to meet NHS standards and become competitive in the tendering process.

The programme was targeted at those businesses actively planning on tendering for social inclusion services for people with long term mental health problems and based wholly or substantially in the Central Lancashire area.

The programme developed included an initial group training programme for the organisations invited to take part and then individual mentoring and action learning for ongoing support.


Engage opportunities: taking community and social enterprise forward for BME communities across the North West of England.

This project piloted a model for developing sustainable community and social enterprise. The model brings together BME organisations with the capacity to develop services with health and social care commissioners who have identified market gaps. We worked with Bolton, Preston and Wirral PCTs to identify community organisations, develop and deliver training and support to enable them to be ‘tender ready’.

Commissioning Event

Lancashire Business School was commissioned by the Five Counties Partnership to host a North West based event for commissioners and procurers of public sector services. The purpose of this event was to use the findings from the ACEVO report ‘Mapping of Voluntary Sector Directories for the Five Counties Partnership’ to consult with Commissioners and explore & gather feedback on Third Sector Supplier Directories.

The event was entitled ‘Shaping Third Sector Directories’ and included presentations from Professor Chris Heginbotham on ‘Really Engaging the Community: Commissioning with and from the Third Sector’ and Debbie Dalby, Chief Officer of Halton Voluntary Action showcasing the ‘Here to Help’ supplier directory commissioned by Halton & St Helens PCT.

The event also included a session using an interactive response system to collect and analyse delegates’ responses to questions informed by the ACEVO report. Delegates were not given a copy of the ACEVO report before the session so that they were not influenced by the findings. Copies of the ACEVO report were issued at the end of the event.

Third Sector Commissioning Course

This course provides an in-depth introduction for public agency staff to commissioning with and from third sector organisations. The course aims to increase delegates knowledge and understanding of commissioning, the strengths and weaknesses of the third sector (charities, community groups and social enterprises) and the processes that can be adopted to encourage and sustain third sector developments It is aimed at public agency managers with responsibility for commissioning health, social care and other relevant public services, to meet the assessed needs of local communities.

Courses have been delivered for Change Up Merseyside and Lancashire Drug and Alcohol Action Team.

Social Enterprise Hub

I2e2 provide support to the Central Lancashire Hub which was founded by Lancashire County Council and is one of several hubs across Lancashire now associated with SELNET (Social Enterprise Lancashire Network). I2e2 has hosted meetings, arranged speakers and provided support and guidance to members.